Pigments are a water insoluble substance or compound with fine particles, in contrast to dyes in the liquid solution. Pigments are exist as mineral pigments, organic pigments and metallic pigments.
Natural soil pigments are the oldest materials used by our ancestors to make paints.
Earth pigments have been used around the world, including at least 100,000 years ago, including Egyptians, Indians, ancient Buddhists, medieval priests and Renaissance masters. In almost every continent, people collect clay and minerals from the soil; they produced binders using honey, urine, blood, plant extract, grease and oil.
Over time, this basic technique has undergone numerous variations, and by the end of the nineteenth century synthetic pigments and petroleum-based paints have become widely used in oil paintings. The initial soil pigment colors were red, yellow, orange, brown, black and white. A small amount of green soil pigments were then produced.
During this period, blue and purple production was more difficult. Each culture used different techniques to produce blue and purple. Prehistoric people used manganese ore, the Egyptians used copper frit, the ancient Chinese used malachite and azurite, and the Etrurians used Lapis Lazuli.
Then the pigments become more widely used.